Every product is very significant; we cannot deny its importance ever. The sodium lignosulfonate series products can be adopted as adhesives in the briquetting process in vertical retort zinc smelters. The Sodium lignosulfonate series products can be used as reinforcing agents for embryos in ceramic, porcelain, and refractory industries. They can increase the fluidity of the grout and thus improve the:
Polycarboxylate Superplasticizers (PCE)
It has become one of the most important superplasticizers for concrete due to its superior performance. Compared to other products such as polycondensates, they thin cement even at low water-to-cement ratios, require relatively low dosages, and show high cast retention capacity. The high dispersal efficiency of PCEs can be attributed to the non-ionic side chains, which extend into the pore solution and act as a steric barrier to keep the cementitious particles separate. Furthermore, due to the adsorption of PCE, a negative surface charge is induced, which also causes electrostatic repulsion between the cement particles. However, a key parameter for effective dispersion is the thickness of the PCE layer adsorbed on the cement surface. According to the Ottewill Walker equation, high steric stabilization of particle suspensions can be obtained in particular by polymers that adsorb to form a particularly thick layer. Therefore, it is assumed that bulky, flat and sterically demanding polymers can produce an even stronger steric effect than comb-shaped PCEs.
The polymer penetrates much more into the pore solution, thus creating a greater layer thickness. Similar results were also reported for PCE with a branched topological structure synthesized by free-radical copolymerization of acrylic acid, polyethylene glycol methyl ether (HPEG), and a branched monomer, which was prepared in a two-step synthesis from diallyl amine, methyl acrylate, and trimethylolpropane. Incorporation of branched side chains into PCE in the form of a comb can also produce a greater steric hindrance effect, as demonstrated by Li et al. They found that the dispersion performance of IPEG-PCE was significantly improved after the introduction of polyamidoamine hyper branch side chains synthesized from ethylenediamine and methyl acrylate. All these previous results suggest that branched structures appear to be very useful for steric stabilization, which is why these motifs are attractive elements for the development of new superplasticizers. Unfortunately, its preparation often implies that multiple synthesis steps are tedious and time-consuming. Therefore, branched polymeric structures are required, which can be formed in just a few reaction steps.